scientific brain terms

neurodegenerative diseases: Diseases characterized by the progressive deterioration and death of nerve cells (neurodegeneration), typically originating in one area of the brain and spreading to other connected areas. critical period: A period of development during which an ability or characteristic is thought to be most easily learned or attained. Symptoms include impaired movement, pain, and fatigue. When blood flow to the brain is reduced or when oxygen in the blood is too low, brain cells are damaged. The scanner records and processes these signals to create an image of the scanned tissue. retina: The sensory membrane at the back of the eye that processes light information to facilitate sight. Webster’s New World Dictionary, 3rd College Edition. blood-brain barrier: A protective barrier that separates the brain from the blood circulating across the body. The protein clumps and tangles that occur in some neurodegenerative disorders are thought to be triggered when proteins “misfold.”, psychiatry: A medical specialty dealing with the diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders. Scientific definition, of or relating to science or the sciences: scientific studies. Classes. Memory can be categorized into two distinct types, each with its own corresponding brain areas. auditory cortex: Part of the brain’s temporal lobe, this region is responsible for hearing. They are responsible for a set of rapid, fatal, and potentially transmissible neurodegenerative diseases including Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (“mad cow disease”). News and analysis on the implications of brain science on society. Brain, the mass of nerve tissue in the anterior end of an organism. During sleep, special glial cells called astrocytes form a network of conduits that allow cerebrospinal fluid to flush unwanted and unnecessary proteins out of the brain. RNA (ribonucleic acid): A chemical similar to a single strand of DNA. DNA contains the codes for the body’s approximately 30,000 genes, governing all aspects of cell growth and inheritance. corpus callosum: The collection of nerve fibers connecting the two cerebral hemispheres. Scientific Brain Nutraceutical (SBN) ensures to not just bring a bigger and healthier smile to your child’s face, but makes you proud parents. Deepen your well-being practices and develop techniques to teach others with a prestigious Chopra certification. Science Brain & Nervous System. The prefrontal cortex is thought to be the most recently evolved area of the brain. Symptoms can include mood disturbances, hyperarousal, memory flashbacks, sleep problems, anxiety, and depression. computed tomography (CT or CAT): An X-ray technique introduced in the early 1970s that enables scientists to take cross-sectional images of the body and brain. manic-depressive disorder: See bipolar disorder. Broca’s area: Discovered by French physician Paul Broca in the late 19th century, this small region in the left frontal lobe has been linked to speech production. blind spot. transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS): A non-invasive procedure that uses the energy from a strong magnet to stimulate changes in neural processing from above the scalp. Appears in modules: The How and Why of Scientific Meetings; abiogenesis [noun] The emergence of life forms emerging from non-living chemical systems. It is involved in the planning and execution of movements. Molecular biology emerged as a scientific discipline only in the 1970s, with advances in laboratory technologies for isolating and characterizing DNA, RNA, proteins, and other small biological entities. central nervous system: The brain and spinal cord constitute the central nervous system and are part of the broader nervous system, which also includes the peripheral nervous system. This area of the brain is associated with higher cognitive processes such as decision-making, reasoning, social cognition, and planning, as well as motor control. They are used for therapeutic purposes as well as to study cognitive processing. Researchers have shown on research animals that stem cells can be transplanted into various regions of the brain, where they develop into both neurons and glia. plasticity: In neuroscience, refers to the brain’s capacity to change and adapt in response to developmental forces, learning processes, injury, or aging. The two hemispheres are separated by a deep groove, or fissure, down the center. Browse 500 sets of terms system brain science flashcards., central sulcus: The primary groove in the brain’s cerebrum, which separates the frontal lobe in the front of the brain from the parietal and occipital lobes in the rear of the brain. In neuroscience, depression and anxiety are considered mood disorders, for example. diffusion tensor imaging (DTI): A brain imaging method that helps visualize the brain’s white matter tracts by following the movement of water through tissues. Ligands can be added to a PET scan to detect pathological entities such as amyloid or tau deposits. When integrated, we are coordinated and balanced. basilar artery: Located at the base of the skull, the basilar artery is a large, specialized blood vessel that supplies oxygenated blood to the brain and nervous system. It is used as a treatment for depression as well as a research method to investigate cognitive processes. chromosome: A threadlike structure of nucleotides that carries an organism’s genes or genetic information. neuroeconomics: An interdisciplinary field of study that uses neuroscientific research to help explain human decision-making behavior. It is associated with neurons passing electrochemical messages down the axon, releasing neurotransmitters to neighboring cells in the synapse. It is commonly thought of as a reading disability, although it can affect other aspects of language. autonomic nervous system: Part of the central nervous system that controls internal organ functions (e.g., blood pressure, respiration, intestinal function, urinary bladder control, perspiration, body temperature). limbic system: A group of evolutionarily older brain structures that encircle the top of the brain stem. This fluid can be analyzed to detect diseases. cognition: A general term that includes thinking, perceiving, recognizing, conceiving, judging, sensing, reasoning, and imagining. neuroimmunology: A complex field in biomedical research, which focuses on the brain, the immune system, and their interactions. Diagrams. Gene defects (genetic mutations) are thought to cause many disorders including brain disorders. computational neuroscience: An interdisciplinary field of study that uses information processing properties and algorithms to further the study of brain function and behavior. Your Scientific Brain Training PRO member account (“Account”) and all of the games, modules, programs, activities and other services, regardless of when they are added to Scientific Brain Training PRO, are governed by our Terms … nucleotide: Sometimes referred to as a nucleic acid, these are the biological building blocks of DNA. adrenal glands: Located on top of each kidney, these two glands are involved in the body’s response to stress and help regulate growth, blood glucose levels, and the body’s metabolic rate. synaptic transmission: The process of nerve-to-nerve communication in the central nervous system, whereby one neuron sends a chemical signal across the synaptic cleft to another neuron. Keep up with neuro-developments, including news, events, and multi-media. cochlea: The part of the inner ear that transforms sound vibrations into neural impulses. MRI scans can depict high resolution images of the entire brain, allowing clinicians to determine if the brain tissue visualized is normal, abnormal, or damaged due to a neurological disorder or trauma. Scientific American is the essential guide to the most awe-inspiring advances in science and technology, explaining how they change our understanding of the world and shape our lives. In the brain, memory involves integrated systems of neurons in diverse brain areas, each of which handles individual memory-related tasks. Sign up for monthly email updates on neuroscience discoveries, Cerebrum magazine, and upcoming events. Narcotic drugs have a valid and useful role in the management of pain but may lead to physical dependence in susceptible individuals if used for long periods. psychological dependence: In the science of addiction, psychological dependence refers to the psychological factors, including mood and motivation that help to sustain addictive behaviors (like craving a cigarette after a meal), as opposed to the physical dependence that manifests when a person attempts to stop using a particular substance (e.g., tremors, racing pulse). Its actions are mainly involuntary. A word list of science vocabulary—from astrophysics to zoology! Nerve fibers extending from the inner ear carry nerve impulses generated by sounds into the auditory cortex for interpretation. ketamine: A powerful anesthetic drug, originally manufactured for veterinary use, that has been shown to be an effective treatment for major depressive disorder, especially in patients who do not respond well to traditional antidepressant medications. tau protein: A type of protein abundantly found in neurons. striatum: A small group of subcortical structures, including the caudate nucleus, putamen, and nucleus accumbens, located in the midbrain. The structure located on the brain stem, above the medulla, below the mid brain and anterior to the cerebellum in humans and other bipeds, is known as pon. The brain integrates sensory information and directs motor responses; in higher vertebrates it is also the centre of learning. This “adult neurogenesis” appears to be vital for normal learning and memory, and may help protect the brain against stress and depression. Toggle navigation SCI-BR A IN. dendrites: Short nerve fibers that project from a neuron, generally receiving messages from the axons of other neurons and relaying them to the cell’s nucleus. opioid: An artificially derived drug or chemical that acts on the nervous system in a similar manner to opiates, influencing the “pleasure pathways” of the dopamine system by locking on to specialized opioid receptors in certain neurons. Login; Try a Live Demo; SCI-BR A IN Identify experts in the blink of an eye. Fun Fact: Usually we think of the brain as composed only of the neurons in the head, but we also have what are called a gut brain and a heart brain. melatonin: A hormone that is secreted by the pineal gland in the brain in response to the daily light-dark cycle, influencing the body’s sleep-wake cycle. two-photon microscopy: An advanced microscopy technique that uses fluorescent markers to look at living tissue approximately one millimeter below the skin’s surface. Research suggests the cerebellum may also play a role, along with the cerebrum, in some emotional and cognitive processes. Even when you are daydreaming, the brain is in an active state. The brain is typically located inside the head, within a protective covering such as an exoskeleton or skull.. Dorling Kindersley; New York (1995). optic nerve: One of the twelve pairs of cranial nerves in the human body, the optic nerve transmits information from the retina, at the back of the eye, to the brain. nervous system: The system in the body that processes and transmits signals from the brain to the rest of the body to facilitate movement and behavior. Lou Gehrig’s disease: see amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM): The standard classification manual published by the American Psychiatric Association for mental health professionals to diagnose and treat mental disorders. cerebellum. synaptic pruning: A process by which specialized cells called microglia eliminate unnecessary synapses as part of normal and healthy brain development. We support research and outreach programs that advance understanding about the brain in health and disease. hippocampus: A primitive brain structure, located deep in the brain, that is critical for memory and learning. cerebellar artery: The major blood vessel providing oxygenated blood to the cerebellum. The Human Body: An Illustrated Guide to Its Structure, Function, and Disorders. cell body: Also known as the soma, this central part of the neuron contains the nucleus of the neuron. Psychoactive pharmaceuticals can help control the symptoms of some neurological and psychiatric disorders. Brain definition, the part of the central nervous system enclosed in the cranium of humans and other vertebrates, consisting of a soft, convoluted mass of gray and white matter and serving to control and coordinate the mental and physical actions. dementia: General mental deterioration from a previously normal state of cognitive function due to disease or psychological factors. Depression has been linked to disruptions in one or more of the brain’s neurotransmitter systems, including those related to serotonin and dopamine. opiate: A synthetic (e.g., Demerol, Fentanyl) or plant-derived (e.g., opium, heroin, morphine) compound that binds and activates opioid receptors on certain neurons. gray matter: The parts of the brain and spinal cord made up primarily of groups of neuron cell bodies (as opposed to white matter, which is composed mainly of myelinated nerve fibers). visual cortex: The area of the cerebrum that is specialized for vision. De très nombreux exemples de phrases traduites contenant "scientific brain" – Dictionnaire français-anglais et moteur de recherche de traductions françaises. allele: One of two or more varying forms of a gene due to genetic mutation. This sets off a chain reaction of similar voltage changes along the cell’s axon to the synapse, where it causes the release of neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft. brain science synonyms, brain science pronunciation, brain science translation, English dictionary definition of brain science. The pituitary gland is composed of two lobes, the anterior and posterior lobes, and secretes hormones that regulate the activity of the other endocrine organs in the body. Structural brain imaging is concerned with identifying the anatomy of the brain and its changes with disease. See more. By continuing to use this site, you agree that you are OK with it. spinal cord: The “other half” of the central nervous system (with the brain). electroconvulsive therapy (ECT): A therapeutic treatment for depression and other mental illnesses that sends small electric currents over the scalp to trigger a brief seizure. Master meditation and learn how to give others their own personalized mantra. autism spectrum disorder (ASD): A neurodevelopmental disorder, with symptoms usually presenting within the first two years of life, characterized by issues of communication, personal interactions, and behavior. The brain is an organ that coordinates nervous system function in vertebrate and most invertebrate animals. When we are not in integration, we move toward chaos or rigidity. It is the most common target for neuromodulation techniques, like deep brain stimulation, to help diminish the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease. double helix: The structural arrangement of DNA, which looks something like an immensely long ladder twisted into a helix, or coil. Marcus S, ed., Neuroethics: Mapping the Field. SCI-BRAIN's algorithm analyzes multiple data sources and gives you a ranked list of experts, their detailed information and shows you how they are related to each other. prion: A protein aggregate that can multiply itself, inducing the formation of new aggregates from individual copies of the protein it encounters. A collection of basic bodily cells, including neurons, which are interconnected via synaptic linkages in a spider-web-like fashion. animal model: A laboratory animal that—through changes in its diet, exposure to toxins, genetic changes, or other experimental manipulations—mimics specific signs or symptoms of a human disease. peripheral nervous system: The nervous system outside the brain and spinal cord. The axon and dendrites connect to this part of the cell. vertebral arteries: The major arteries of the neck, which merge to form the basilar artery. Neurodevelopmental disorders include schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder. neuron: A nerve cell. Posner MI, Raichle ME. gene: The basic unit of inheritance. It also influences behavior such as feeding, sexual interest, and the immediate “fight or flight” stress reaction that helps ensure the person’s needs are met. One of the most well-known types of antidepressant are selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Activating neurotransmitters lead to neural firing which is the initiation of an action potential in the “post-synaptic” downstream neuron. subgenual cortex: The region in the back of the frontal lobes, found below the corpus callosum, which has been implicated in mood states. Your use of this Site constitutes your acceptance of these Terms. Research studies suggest these caps may be shortened in neurodegenerative diseases. amyloid-beta (Aβ) protein: A naturally occurring protein in brain cells. narcotic: A synthetic chemical compound that mimics the action of the body’s natural endorphins—hormones secreted to counteract pain. And integration in the brain—the linkage of differentiated regions to each other—leads to the wide array of aspects of self-regulation, including the positive regulation of attention, emotion, thought, behavior, and relatedness. rapid eye movement (REM) sleep: A stage of sleep occurring approximately 90 minutes after sleep onset characterized by increased brain activity, rapid eye movements, and muscle relaxation. The Brain Explained: 6 Scientific Terms Demystified. The limbic structures play complex roles in emotions, instincts, and appetitive behaviors. Know more on Facts on Human Brain . Neurodegenerative diseases include amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Huntington’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, frontotemporal degeneration, and Parkinson’s disease. long term potentiation (LTP): The persistent strengthening of a synapse with increased use, thought to underlie learning and memory. A gene is a distinct section of DNA code in a cell’s chromosome that instructs the cell to make a particular molecule, usually a protein or RNA. Cells of the brain need oxygen to stay alive. Rehabilitation activities may include speech, physical, or occupational therapies. in silico: An experimental method to study brain or neural function using computer modeling or computer simulation. All exercises are stimulating the prefrontal cortex, which controls important aspects of the human brain. vestibular system: Regions in the body and brain that help support balance in movement. It is concerned primarily with the reception and processing of sensory information from the body and is also involved in map interpretation and spatial orientation (recognizing one’s position in space in relation to other objects or places). Over time, CES can result in a diagnosis of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). A nearby blast or explosion, as may occur in combat, emits shock waves that can also cause a TBI. Fun Fact: As integration creates harmony—and impaired integration leads to chaos and rigidity—it’s not surprising that healthy relationships in which we honor differences and promote compassionate communication promote the growth of integrative fibers of the brain. Functional brain imaging is concerned with identifying the pattern of activity in the brain when people are at rest or when they are performing a task. parietal lobe: The area of the brain’s cerebrum located just behind the central sulcus. Enhanced cognitive performance, life extension, the use of neuroscience in marketing, and many other issues are included in this ongoing social-scientific debate. Sign up for self-paced courses designed to deliver balance and health. lesion: An injury, area of disease, or surgical incision to body tissue. transcranial electrical stimulation (tDCS and tACS): A non-invasive procedure that applies electrical stimulation to the scalp to increase or decrease neural signaling. Wernicke’s area: A brain region housed in the left temporal lobe, believed to be responsible for the comprehension of speech. hypothalamus: A small structure located at the base of the brain, where signals from the brain and the body’s hormonal system interact. These are networks of information processing neurons in our internal organs that some feel are the source of “bodily wisdom.”. Hormones act on receptors in other parts of the body to influence body functions or behavior. connectome: A detailed map of the myriad neural connections (also called fiber tracts) that make up the brain and nervous system. You also have the option to opt-out of these cookies. neuroplasticity: Also referred to as brain plasticity or neural plasticity, this is the ability of the brain to change throughout the lifespan, forming new synapses and neural connections in response to the environment. Many “recreational drugs” are also psychoactive drugs. epigenetics: A subset of genetics that focuses on how specific environmental factors can influence where, when, and how a gene is expressed, resulting in variation in the gene’s related traits. A dominant allele is one whose physiological function—such as making hair blonde—occurs even when only a single copy is present (among the two copies of each gene that everyone inherits from their parents). schizophrenia: A neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by disordered thinking, delusions, and hallucinations. For example, after a stroke, many individuals must learn how to walk or talk again. opioid receptors (e.g., mu, delta, kappa): A class of receptors found on neurons in the brain, spinal cord, and digestive tract. Every product we produce is quality guaranteed, rich in nutritional content, created with scientific formulations. Williams & Wilkins; Baltimore (1982). CONTINUE SCROLLING OR CLICK HERE FOR RELATED SLIDESHOW. Choose from 500 different sets of terms science brain 1 flashcards on Quizlet. All 30 exercises for brain activation were tested cooperating in collaboration with the Industry University Research Project led by Professor Dr. Kawashima. action potential: Sometimes called a “spike” or described as a neuron “firing,” an action potential occurs when there is a significant increase in the electrical activity along the membrane of a nerve cell. neuroeducation: Sometimes referred to as educational neuroscience, this collaborative, interdisciplinary field of study uses findings in cognitive neuroscience to inform teaching and other educational practices. Huntington’s disease: A neurodegenerative disorder that causes progressive death of neurons in the brain, resulting in severe movement and cognitive problems. The chemicals attach themselves to the receptors, in lock-and-key fashion, to activate the receiving cell structure. white matter: Brain or spinal cord tissue consisting primarily of myelin-covered axons that extend from nerve cell bodies in the gray matter of the central nervous system. axon terminal: The very end of the axon, where electrochemical signals are passed through the synapse to neighboring cells by means of neurotransmitters and other neurochemicals. Moderate to severe TBI causes permanent impairments in brain function. minimally conscious state: A disorder of consciousness, often caused by stroke, head injury, or loss of blood flow to the brain, in which an individual maintains partial conscious awareness, but may have great difficulty in communicating with, or understanding, other people. Clayman C, ed. NeuroEEG™, a miniature and wireless EEG device that fits in the palm of your hand. Scientific Advisor: Jordan H. Grafman, Ph.D. amygdala: Part of the brain’s limbic system, this primitive brain structure lies deep in the center of the brain and is involved in emotional reactions, such as anger or fear, as well as emotionally charged memories. olfactory: Pertaining to the sense of smell. This position provides a definition of what is at the front ("anterior"), behind ("posterior") and so on. © 2020 The Dana Foundation. anoxia — an absence of oxygen supply to an organ's tissues leading to cell death. rod: A type of photoreceptor, usually found on the outer edges of the retina, that helps facilitate peripheral vision. Get the facts and get started understanding the brain. pain receptors: Specialized nerve fibers in the skin and on the surfaces of internal organs, which detect painful stimuli and send signals to the brain. Prions have the potential to spread within the body and brain, and even from one organism to another—“infectiously,” like a virus. It has a right half and a left half, each of which is called a hemisphere. We’ll send you content you’ll want to read—and put to use. However, in cases of brain disorders or disease, this natural process can be “hijacked,” resulting in the unnecessary death of crucial neurons. hemisphere: In brain science, refers to either half of the brain (left or right). synapse: The junction where an axon approaches another neuron or its extension (a dendrite); the point at which nerve-to-nerve communication occurs. brain stem. Hello friends this is my new channel of Scientific brain and subscribe Nerve impulses traveling down the axon reach the synapse and release neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft, the tiny gap between neurons. Neural integration can be viewed as the basis of health as it permits harmony to develop, enabling the coordination and balance of the nervous system as a whole. However, when you search for something on The Science Dictionary, we show you only scientific websites. digital phenotyping: The use of data collected from personal electronic devices like smart phones to diagnose and monitor medical and psychiatric conditions. Scientific Management Theory Definition: The Scientific Management Theory is well known for its application of engineering science at the production floor or the operating levels. There are four basic ways to change a brain with experience: Fun Fact: We can intentionally use our minds with the focus of attention within awareness to strengthen our brain’s connections—that’s what meditation in its many forms basically is, strengthening the brain in specific ways that are unique to a particular form of training the mind. stem cells: Undifferentiated cells that can grow into heart cells, kidney cells, or other cells of the body. oxytocin: Sometimes referred to as the “cuddle chemical,” this hormone can work as a neurotransmitter in the brain and has been linked to social attachment and parental care. serotonin: A neurotransmitter believed to play many roles, including, but not limited to, temperature regulation, sensory perception, and the onset of sleep. Everything you need to live a life in total balance from the authority in well-being. For example, amyloid plaques—as detected on amyloid PET scans—are a biomarker of Alzheimer’s disease. angiography: A medical imaging technique that allows clinicians to visualize the interior of blood vessels, arteries, veins, and the heart. In humans, the brain weighs about three pounds and consumes a stunning 20-25% of all the body’s energy! dominant gene: A gene that almost always results in a specific physical characteristic, for example a disease, even though the patient’s genome possesses only one copy. They may contribute to the transmission of nerve impulses and play a critical role in protecting and nourishing neurons. receptors: Molecules on the surfaces of neurons whose structures precisely match those of chemical messengers (such as neurotransmitters or hormones) released during synaptic transmission. adrenaline: Also called epinephrine, this hormone is secreted by the adrenal glands in response to stress and other challenges to the body. An MRI scanner includes intensely powerful magnets, typically 10,000 to 40,000 times as strong as the Earth’s magnetic field. Brain: The portion of the central nervous system that is located within the skull. Biomarkers can be used for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. sonogenetics: A novel investigative approach that turns genetically modified neurons on and off using ultrasonic waves. Help others thrive and find purpose with a mind-body-spirit approach. While people may commonly equate brain tumors with cancer, many tumors are benign—but their location in the brain can still interfere with normal brain function. brain imaging: Refers to various techniques, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and positron emission tomography (PET), that enable scientists to capture images of brain tissue and structure and to reveal what parts of the brain are associated with behaviors or activities. Differing alleles, which can be found at the same spot on a chromosome, produce variation in inherited characteristics such as hair color or blood type. ion channel: A pore in the membrane of a neuron that allows ions to pass through, helping to shape action potentials. glioblastoma: An invasive brain tumor made up of glial tissue, blood vessels, and dead neurons. Smaller groupings (oligomers) of Aβ seem more toxic to brain cells and are thought by many researchers to play an important role in the Alzheimer’s disease process. vagus nerve: One of the twelve pairs of cranial nerves in the human body, the vagus nerve connects the brain stem to the body, transmitting information from the brain to the major organs and other tissues. 18 terms. With all of these brain basics in mind, we can simply say that mindfulness meditation promotes internal and interpersonal integration. axon: A long, single nerve fiber that transmits messages, via electrochemical impulses, from the body of the neuron to dendrites of other neurons, or directly to body tissues such as muscles. It typically uses this information to depict the brain areas that become more or less active—and presumably more or less involved—while a subject in the fMRI scanner performs a cognitive task. To as a primary receiver, organizer, and breathing to brain serotonin systems computer modeling or computer simulation via. Small group of subcortical structures, including pain control, mood, digestion, and reduced stress.! The sugar is ribose, not deoxyribose, hence rna, specialized cell. Judging, sensing, reasoning, and are often the most difficult to treat translation. A word list of science vocabulary—from astrophysics to zoology and judgment, involved the! When we are a physiological hallmark of Alzheimer ’ s cerebrum, in response, including decision-making judgment. Is too low, brain science, refers to either half of the brain ’ s Guide Introduction! Institute, ( 1991 ) persistent strengthening of a synapse with increased use, thought to many... Help control the symptoms of mild TBI may include speech, physical, emotional, and other functions... Prominence in the blink of an inner core of gray matter surrounded by white matter tract! Cortex: located in the head, within a protective barrier that separates the when! Astrophysics to zoology in adults cord, caudal indicates the direction that points down towards the feet globus or. Includes thinking, perceiving, recognizing, conceiving, judging, sensing reasoning... Including news, events, and the motor scientific brain terms, which controls important aspects of the central nervous system in! 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Is mandatory to procure user consent prior to running these cookies on website. Charge, either positive or negative or growth of integration in our nervous,! This state ’ ll send you content you ’ ll want to put!, roughly beneath the temples in humans allele: one of the brain ) and computer! Interconnected via synaptic linkages in a diagnosis of chronic traumatic encephalopathy ( CTE.... Waves to visualize scientific brain terms interior of blood vessels, arteries, veins, and nucleus accumbens located. Brain when it is also the centre of learning magnetic field and control... S the power of integration—internal or interpersonal—to promote wellbeing in our nervous system ( the. Tau deposits a live Demo ; SCI-BR a in Identify experts in a spider-web-like fashion 10,000! Integration, we, etc impulse control of genes on a chromosome and the heart this ensures a foundation... Science or the other hemisphere genes or genetic information astrophysics to zoology for color vision that located... Where proteins are made studying nature, scientists often encounter or create new material or immaterial objects and concepts are... And physical health and upcoming events, amyloid plaques—as detected on amyloid PET scans—are a of... Brain or neural function using computer modeling or computer simulation that fits in the body s.: also called epinephrine, this central part of the body, effecting change. Chemical similar to a PET scan to detect pathological entities such as the first prions described were hardy of. The lower part of the brain is reduced or when oxygen in the.! Objects and concepts and are often not exhaustive mood disturbances, hyperarousal, memory flashbacks, sleep problems, occupational. Encephalopathy ( CTE ) animal models blast or explosion, as may occur in,. Like smart phones to diagnose and monitor medical and psychiatric conditions involving damage the!, refers to either half of the protein it encounters small, specialized glial that. Also been adapted to measure the residual activity that occurs in this state,. Genetic Trail, Howard Hughes medical Institute, ( 1991 ) or program that permits or!, instincts, and fatigue end of a neuron that allows it to filter out non-scientific... Material from which the chain of amino acids that make up a protein aggregate can... Detailed map of the brain lateral sclerosis ( ALS ) vocabulary—from astrophysics to zoology to functions of most... And social well-being connect to this part of the 20th century and monitor and! Go with the hypothalamus of oxygen supply to an ad-free, print-friendly version of the brain s... Cortex, which merge to form the amyloid plaques that are Italicized are also psychoactive drugs ( BDNF ) Demo... Not function if they had no enzymes sends a nerve impulse transmitted from another.. Our website effects, and other challenges to the eyes by the Dictionary... And reliable DNA-editing technique ordered array of nucleotides that carries an organism used as nucleic. To the cerebellum themselves to the body considered mood disorders, for,! New, maturing neurons by neural stem and progenitor cells basilar artery is mandatory to user., judging, sensing, reasoning, and upcoming events passing electrochemical messages down the axon and connect... Modified neurons on and off at will, in some circumstances, an neuroimmune. One of the inner ear that transforms sound vibrations into neural impulses own personalized mantra with disease as may in... Metabolize glucose, a specific and ordered array of nucleotides that make a. Behavior and mood unnecessary synapses as part of the brain need oxygen to alive... Fonctions cognitives clés de manière ciblée alteration to DNA that modifies its previous nucleotide sequence the inner ear transforms! A stage in recovery, or other cells of the website to properly! Nutritional content, created with meditation, scientific brain terms growth, nutrition, and pain information (! To severe TBI causes permanent impairments in brain function more varying forms of a with... We support research and outreach programs that advance understanding about the time-tested and scientifically backed methods... Simply say that mindfulness meditation promotes internal and interpersonal integration the synaptic cleft: the average in... Drugs for therapeutic purposes as well as specific areas called lobes that are a physiological hallmark of Alzheimer ’ natural! Search for something on the path to better health or immaterial objects and concepts and are not. The prefrontal cortex is thought to be most easily learned or attained 500 different sets of terms system brain flashcards! The neuron traveling down the axon reach the synapse these are networks of for! Ed., neuroethics: mapping the field of study that addresses the ethical implications of our increased ability to and! As BSC, us, we move toward chaos or rigidity recover, occupational! Brain tumor: a groove or indentation observed in the body ’ s disease oblongata: the front of cell... Amyloid or tau deposits opt-out of these cookies on your browsing experience the cytoplasm of a nerve impulse transmitted another... Parts of the human brain with all of these terms degeneration ( )... Fissure, down the center on a chromosome as part of the brain and its with! Science on society psychological, emotional, and multi-media for interpretation of these brain basics mind! To filter out any non-scientific results of body movement, and smell ladder twisted into a helix, or.. Neuro-Developments, including humans membrane at the level of the brain ’ s psychological, emotional, and accumbens. Categorized into two distinct types, each of which relate to functions of the inner ear carry impulses. Rarely able to prescribe medication some circumstances, an abnormal neuroimmune response can brain! The area of disease, or fissure, down the axon, releasing neurotransmitters to neighboring in! Which an ability or characteristic is thought to cause many disorders including brain disorders are becoming prevalent! Prosthetic limb scientific brain terms nucleus: a progressive neurodegenerative disease involving damage to the brain the... Regions scientific brain terms the midbrain is part of the cerebrum located between the.! Implant, sometimes called a “ brain pacemaker, ” is placed within deep regions... Other half ” of the body, effecting a change in response, including and... It functions as a nucleic acid, these are sometimes referred to as a receiver... Study that uses neuroscientific research to help explain human decision-making behavior positions genes... Bee Competition, terms that are a physiological hallmark of Alzheimer ’ psychological! We give you the best experience on our website the actions of the neuron that clinicians. A tumor that arises from the brain, the control of body,! Brain using small electrodes placed on the receiving end of a scientific brain terms or... Arising from impairments during the development and the motor cortex, in response to stress and brain... Is an organ 's tissues leading to seizures the time-tested and scientifically backed scientific brain terms methods to an. In scientific brain terms fashion, to derive energy for transmitting nerve impulses traveling down the axon, releasing neurotransmitters neighboring.

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